Tsunami can also be caused by landslides, explosions that occur underwater, and the impact from meteorites. When a landslide occurs and debris falls into the water, the result can be a Tsunami. These landslides do not have to occur in the ocean, they can also occur in lakes, bays, and other bodies of water, and they normally happen because of volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. Underwater explosions can also cause a Tsunami. When an explosion happens underneath the water, large amounts of water can be pushed out and displaced. The United States performed underwater nuclear testing during the nineteen forties and fifties in the Marshall Islands, and these nuclear explosions generated Tsunami. Meteorite impacts are very rare, and have not resulted in a Tsunami for centuries, but it has happened before and could happen again. The impact of a meteorite hitting the ocean could cause destructive Tsunami to form.


Tsunami Wave
Tsunamis are part of the natural process of the earth. The Japanese word means ‘big wave’. What are the various methods that cause tsunami’s? What areas of the world do they occur in? What are the warning signs of a tsunami?

What is a Tsunami, and how is it formed? A Tsunami is a wave of water that has a very long wavelength, and it is caused by the disruption of a body of standing water, or when the sea floor is suddenly displaced. There are several things that can cause a Tsunami to occur, including earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, underwater explosions, meteorite impacts, and other events that can cause the water to be displaced. Tsunami can be called by many names, including tidal waves, seismic sea waves, and other terms. These natural formations can be deadly, especially to coastal communities. One coastal community may be relatively untouched, while another just miles away can be completely destroyed. When a Tsunami wave recedes, it can take debris and even humans back out to sea with it.

Earthquakes are one cause of a Tsunami. An earthquake can disturb the floor of the sea, and any time an earthquake occurs under the ocean or along the coasts a Tsunami can be generated. The stronger the earthquake, the bigger the Tsunami, but not all earthquakes will cause one. The displacement of the water and the seafloor is also critical, because only vertical displacement will usually result in a Tsunami. Most Tsunami that are generated by earthquakes have either reverse or normal displacement, and these occur most often by earthquakes that happen along the plate boundaries and along the trenches in these areas. The Pacific Ocean is ringed by these plate boundaries, and because of this the Pacific Ocean margins have earthquakes which commonly result in a Tsunami.

Volcanic eruptions can be another cause of Tsunami. Volcanoes which are located along the coastal areas, like what is present on island arcs throughout the world and in places like Japan, can cause a Tsunami in many ways. Eruptions can put lava and debris into the water, the volcano can cause debris from avalanches and landslides to displace the water quickly, and the volcano can collapse and form a caldera which will displace the water. All of these conditions can cause a Tsunami to form. One of the worst cases of a volcano eruption resulting in Tsunami would be the eruption of the volcano KraKatau in the year 1883. The volcano erupted, and the resulting conditions created not just one but three separate Tsunami which ended up causing a total of over thirty six thousand deaths. One of these three had a wave taller than forty meters above sea level, and a six hundred ton coral block was ripped from the floor and sent inland one hundred meters due to the force of the Tsunami.

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