New evidence suggests that East African honeybees may hold the key to conquering Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), a widespread condition afflicting honeybees in the west that causes them to leave their hives and die off mysteriously. Billions of bees have perished from CCD since 2006 due to a wide variety of factors including pesticides and deadly parasites and pathogens that the weakened immune systems of the bees are unable to fight off. Surprisingly, recent studies reveal that East African bees living in Kenya have been exposed to the same parasites and pathogens as bees affected by CCD, yet the Kenyan bees demonstrate almost no ill effects and continue to thrive.


honeybees
Since the onset of CCD in 2006, beekeepers have lost tens of millions of hives, while the industry has taken a hit of over $2 billion. The mass devastation of bees has had wide-ranging effects, including the loss of many crops that could not be properly pollinated. Pesticides play a large role in CCD, as some of the chemicals weaken the bees’ immune systems. Bees also contend with the stress of being moved from place to place, in addition to the fact that commercial hives frequently use queen bees imported by mail to beekeepers, as opposed to allowing the hierarchical structure to develop naturally.

All of these factors have lead to an enormous drop in resilience among domestically kept hives, leaving them vulnerable to deadly parasites such as Varroa mites. In addition, viruses can often partner with the parasites to form an even deadlier combination of bug.

Varroa and other parasites have also been discovered in the Kenyan bees, however, because of their lack of exposure to pesticides and the other stressors named above, their resilience remains extremely high and they have not succumbed to the normally deadly parasites. The study of these East African bees will be ongoing, and there is already talk of using breeding to strengthen the resilience of domestic bees in the west. Until then, researchers hope this new discovery will continue to provide insight and answers to the mysteries of CCD, which has burdened both the environment and the economy for far too long.

Source: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/04/140416-honeybees-africa-kenya-disease-nosema-varroa-resistance-genetics-pesticides/

Related Posts

https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/10fyz_Ommb3sylQtV-Q40H_L2HIHNmfrC?usp=sharing https://drive.google.com/file/d/1tfPECuBHxS-Akfyq4CiWbFvN2acW14ca/view?usp=sharing https://docs.google.com/document/d/1_CMXIsyLN-kQM11EpLsgzi82VrA_30NWeuSVTwfVDps https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1VRYJ2AHc_3PS6Mg6TvB9mGvy8-dxkY9g00aNt0o5A68 https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSd9x6hKUSJsjxiL3dPuM0aMDJx_slvbgOjBahnYI_s6OhJwIA/viewform?usp=sf_link https://calendar.google.com/calendar/event?eid=M2pkZjJvc29rbGFvcHJuaXVwdWY2N3UzNTEgcmVldGFjemFybmVja2k2OUBt https://www.google.com/maps/d/edit?mid=1dvg-BytNAiaEh8qEg9eQUaKXFDhANPQD&ll=31.969136951982602%2C-92.41699249999999&z=4 https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLn1aYhxGqMsC-EefeJZRnOwvVJHzF_o08 https://www.blogger.com/profile/09332662285503823938 https://replicabags1106.blogspot.com/2020/10/replica-bags-gucci-gsvju416.html https://sites.google.com/site/replicabags1106/ https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/14La8_Qz6ohnqPZZ1wLPXGlDYKMqsDOA7s_JV1VEwfCI https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/10zLHiWFJZMEo-LTynKJT7s1FNZRTlRKZ?usp=sharing https://drive.google.com/file/d/1b2ONE2RwZO7OdHMXFCIAEJOZ2jWAbe2i/view?usp=sharing https://docs.google.com/document/d/1GFzCFw1p5_vlGk4N1yAzmlQ4NH6NuMz2uv2IpdYdhCk https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1c2JkLFokQp7LWdFFHrzc_QMtEBFTDRv60C_--H4X1KU https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSdQ_8ld7hBedCvLzizsOEFch7CDZNQLadz2zUac3bNIXLnunA/viewform?usp=sf_link https://www.google.com/maps/d/edit?mid=16JGCye6bTH1HLFMWGIM28uFca9-V86sm&ll=18.364782016499376%2C-92.41699249999999&z=3 https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLLdGdeVw-7H5rFT9JUKs19kNZbJLyfX1V https://www.blogger.com/profile/12049914127199115382 https://replicabags1109.blogspot.com https://sites.google.com/site/replicabags1109/ https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1W9shs5iRgD64SHES6euRGAo4vlLnwFeZ6B78aGcvNiY https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1YW49-6vdEP6wgP4sjBtrG38-lQ3ZkPGC?usp=sharing https://drive.google.com/file/d/1mtA_d77h81vJF_bvBqR2J8pJwxc-pNgy/view?usp=sharing https://docs.google.com/document/d/1RYOV6TBV4DuyM9dt5oh9dlPtJabhBcZTQZ6HinWCFmE https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1Jc5qQh6pEvpFN2dQeoYo2d6EqrMfor6e-bqlJBjjaMQ https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSdbgnPRxtt9SoNiHeV5Zm_rmwDyppW-ciXEBt2g50mMadiB9w/viewform?usp=sf_link https://www.google.com/maps/d/edit?mid=171_fjKdtuvBB1yxg4Y_zvLVHUIAZmDhg&ll=18.364782016499376%2C-92.41699249999999&z=3 https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLYVCgtAQZjKW5mlBYQANZ7hiA7IhMUhiH https://www.blogger.com/profile/13889772123475017681 https://replicabags1110.blogspot.com https://sites.google.com/site/replicabags11105837/ https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1CNuJGFdGPOwDnGmz2VPQQ8Kp6gH51SfmwKkpzad7udo https://drive.google.com/file/d/1Ldc-1qpIejvuLphkbeYTf1c1C3LAfWNy/view?usp=sharing https://docs.google.com/document/d/1wdP-HkrWUjpeJEHtqwz9h5K1RIgXIJ8iiY395_pHB8U https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1Gt6E4HQJ-ijBwPevMuJxCMP45OLSuxBYWiUOBAcZYHA https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScwaZNedyXZ_vdmF989vzqFRJ4aCxPJFHA-eEH8Y0IErNijqw/viewform?usp=sf_link https://calendar.google.com/calendar/event?eid=MWQ5cGFsOWphdjVrOTVsbjVoajJra2VhZHEgZXJpY2tzcGV5ZXJAbQ https://www.google.com/maps/d/edit?mid=1xm4haE_LZcmcMxVqmrcHkT4RwaMESGVO&ll=18.364782016499376%2C-92.41699249999999&z=3 https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL4NycyWsdmLzzfUITO4JdnQURbHPiLLqv https://www.blogger.com/profile/16063211964353659298 https://replicabags1111.blogspot.com https://sites.google.com/site/replicabags1111/ https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1vwoiyM0eUDu5T5fTToOTWrRKivEkn-3XyDIsGKar0fc https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1wrlBQWzvYEv8TOXtZiq7gbDrBMbZaCfc?usp=sharing https://docs.google.com/document/d/10x3XDXA_NMILxq3TxI3OlwuCYSsoUKAETj3V66EtgmI https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1i_w8PEXGDN7y8_PcDc-9IJ8w1ISFOtfKpBunLUKXwuc https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSclsx_9QpT5Q0_ohLVu9hLgdg5lnyjrqECNXLhehSkqEmRYQQ/viewform?usp=sf_link https://calendar.google.com/calendar/event?eid=MGdqcml2NmdnaGxjbWJlZnFrbHQ3b2htYzMgY2FpbnN1cmlhbm8xNUBt https://www.google.com/maps/d/edit?mid=1zasxn5BDNY5khD8r0Vb8ACXjAWB4C7T6&ll=18.364782016499376%2C-92.41699249999999&z=3 https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLnE5RqNirhB3Rvxxy36y2xRljZ1g-5-ch https://www.blogger.com/profile/05201760526343955900 https://replicabags1114.blogspot.com https://sites.google.com/site/replicabags1114/ https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1XckKwigonqYR1Vz6Hh729Aws7b061b28cUv3KQmdiww https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1HnBMP73bBQPoO6raWsDocoElrlwu-CHO?usp=sharing https://drive.google.com/file/d/1Rr82YHb2zPG7KNjI4BDi6feEqqKpedIo/view?usp=sharing https://docs.google.com/document/d/15rnqqptAjW9_Uv-UEofR0JKqVwYPbWcZORE2SOGJAeE https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/10yFU95LpDhMpcGtGYGatbJvRhUSe8fJufOgDh2D3xxI https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSdRC-XM0IG8rH2TEaDWJhXO-Vuk5_umDpGEWwORSl8SwaEKPQ/viewform?usp=sf_link https://www.google.com/maps/d/edit?mid=1PG8wi7OTdYLZG7phY7KmZipnGCI5q4-u&ll=18.364782016499376%2C-92.41699249999999&z=3 https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLokUCtar2lQ0IlwvZ-KkY3k4qCnJmsgoB https://www.blogger.com/profile/07139280671035222240 https://replicabags1117.blogspot.com https://sites.google.com/site/replicabags1117/ https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/13q21Xl-Nh28E6fu54Pt9UdGh5ycQXlqnnHYqz7BNdtM https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1O7y_9lcGTVkcJ4VYaQSU9l8al64yY0dy?usp=sharing https://drive.google.com/file/d/1K6xR8aXvFzORi6jf_URwqns9dYZxQsgt/view?usp=sharing https://docs.google.com/document/d/1brpbP4PqNcJ3rkHil0gNJt-JWLgviMrLa1QbukZbtns https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1qZjI-TV9Q3_gGuF3wj5kwbfNbYl9F6qEFwCMc8kQdX8 https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScOi1PWy3GcjqfUID5hjfBbMd6V5yciPs5xftsLdCn6-qhZuw/viewform?usp=sf_link https://calendar.google.com/calendar/event?eid=MWd1cWI1bms3bDM1YnRkbWVtdjV1NGI1bzEgbWFyY2VsbGluYWZhYmVydEBt https://www.google.com/maps/d/edit?mid=16DfCT_iHWsCDNA33MSeQZp3ct3dLe4xf&ll=18.364782016499376%2C-92.41699249999999&z=3 https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLG_aIObnWCcH8nvt9FZr8NHsvdLazXwV- https://www.blogger.com/profile/10009333739592486596 https://replicabags1118.blogspot.com https://sites.google.com/site/replicabags1118/ https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1OpsTiAOL2wSDdFcXHOCuaZn75bjauubOytZTG93UBeo https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1tp-V5EomvccoFY2yjNS4NHLNUq1PinZN?usp=sharing https://drive.google.com/file/d/1zYBDCTvXW7sshuAnh7jZx87SHGpbR2Ky/view?usp=sharing https://docs.google.com/document/d/149z-zqZ-Id5_up9Nd2G7myUiwAqP7h0Z_ulXzyVn8eQ https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1iTbE6cLk9QrLBCK7VDJE2ZTECb_lNUYygdGZhqhw9Ho https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSe45GNhZvB0XjnfWmksfSRxRbXVl3LVeKp63HcXjFuYIUcDrA/viewform?usp=sf_link https://calendar.google.com/calendar/event?eid=MmJwMzkzY2M1cTBtYWMwYzdkN2JkY2I5ZWggYW5ubWFyaWFtb3JlbGxAbQ https://www.google.com/maps/d/edit?mid=1xYJrFuzk5LZvw7dIuNrnOhsRixTS2PB3&ll=18.364782016499376%2C-92.41699249999999&z=3 https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLkt9zsPYvJIeIyyYwCCEIHBel8vRvTNpk https://www.blogger.com/profile/15291386171561460603 https://replicabags1119.blogspot.com https://sites.google.com/site/replicabags1119/ https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1ciRlbj5j9UbgPvnkIxtUfHWWcv5TPFYN4O1394hYhGE https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1MSgGMkBncf_fr66cO9GbjTsqh2-505R7?usp=sharing https://drive.google.com/file/d/1uWMDKhQ7C8ZkdkP2V9HuGd87myrm1dsc/view?usp=sharing https://docs.google.com/document/d/1BYvo5RRUR9EDt0gc1Q_oyV9rkgkefL6M1PHWH9TvqOk https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1JhGGSqTsSQnLdFmOsl10EBz0qTV3ITlcOKBItAg2TV4 https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScgJYF0E5zO1RasrQeT3iwYJf68TjmUTLgnF0TonfFi0Gikmw/viewform?usp=sf_link https://www.google.com/maps/d/edit?mid=1AxYu1LzK4aKwh6qR8EeNyB9isYFW5uuc&ll=18.364782016499376%2C-92.41699249999999&z=3 https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLATdmBn-EDCAqaMO7Y43cOZbLAgfyKxEp https://www.blogger.com/profile/13075398158338409612 https://replicabags1120.blogspot.com https://sites.google.com/site/replicabags1120/ https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1F_4rKyZty67xuFnUObcPsWKqB_SK1IWIDubgLn7p4Q4 https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1isBdRQB5hHyhwZz3zN77evylMN3QHX4R?usp=sharing https://drive.google.com/file/d/1R9bNQfc6uUh2PpB0uHWyBb38B71_Gi18/view?usp=sharing https://docs.google.com/document/d/1Tn2wbtdpIAOutfHt1NcN3-B3rQFdvs8xjXyMUByuNz0 https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1LEdVd-DfYTzdEJ4H3yB_W0v7uMRrO-rHVLwFNNV6Yqs https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSdk0Q7yQgnGw34VlITUc5en-5GfMFOKdKpUHl-9lMMK_TpgWw/viewform?usp=sf_link https://calendar.google.com/calendar/event?eid=N2ttanI2NWc1ajgyYXE0aDY0cWtrbjg4Y20gZG9yeWJlbGxpcGFubmk5QG0 https://www.google.com/maps/d/edit?mid=1tBVtiwpbvSOxJY_FytSJHGglfbfaSc8D&ll=18.364782016499376%2C-92.41699249999999&z=3 https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLd3vBGH7mrWPDkxOkUJDdpfGJRFJi5zi6 https://www.blogger.com/profile/13254611077736168499 https://replicabags1122.blogspot.com https://sites.google.com/site/replicabags1122/ https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1bDpY3DXGeqwQ3sskzs89COEy3MO64_nCE-4L60ai5L0 https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1RKL-_dcM_aFbJ8bt9Z0zidSKwLGM6V4f?usp=sharing https://drive.google.com/file/d/1PJ_477n5fknPeivTBwVM7gWc01MtUfax/view?usp=sharing https://docs.google.com/document/d/1Dtot_u7BqVYg_pT7jVkLf-1qKv1BVlwnD9I_WoBCV7c https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1QkXvQ8zpcfV-0z6YMNhr_vOAcAc1r81v04gCkPp0yp4 https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScroU7kzXGpcKafaLfMon47uFKNv7N-gy4vLOqsE3piZduvQw/viewform?usp=sf_link https://www.google.com/maps/d/edit?mid=1xraXB5ZP6IWNq1vnUuHbICdK-hqEAxmZ&ll=18.364782016499376%2C-92.41699249999999&z=3 https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLaCuorAY86_g9lHl4-9_FJVoXBKl3aLhE https://replicabags1123.blogspot.com https://sites.google.com/site/replicabags1123/ https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1i9_B6KsPSpxioipAcLHeVmTL7oHGYUMSybvVTUmea0k https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1OAU_UcCLttgy3EilR4drqur2o8I03Pk5?usp=sharing https://drive.google.com/file/d/1oYfHMkxxCZ6Z4Di6g6eK5d-PLHvnxmcY/view?usp=sharing https://docs.google.com/document/d/1IOqVpZjz6AWyguRQlRoqk_LuGGodCFGd3xXlDYFMkSs https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1yRSfnVZVGEZpjt_0BgGx4tQFrw8iS75GDPHITzFDoxs https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScuwOAfAsN7UkRYwvB1lUHWn-HPBhfB39LXLmDVwgeesYkMew/viewform?usp=sf_link https://www.google.com/maps/d/edit?mid=1p61dMnn2hPQ3DUC5JSfqc6AEChQxC4Wj&ll=18.364782016499376%2C-92.41699249999999&z=3 https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLlY5WvJbhejhjOeoyulEJJQiyB79ss_Bd https://www.blogger.com/profile/10470124376382179987 https://replicabags1124.blogspot.com https://sites.google.com/site/replicabags1124/ https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1fpX8leqOBn0zpLxFU2zph1FFURtlby-yquPNLyZE38A https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1nuz0VWkyVCDmGV9zHwx5zFxFxy3tZkWd?usp=sharing https://drive.google.com/file/d/1-txWvPSVmpOXqyt7eUVcWC-nNhJKSNz_/view?usp=sharing https://docs.google.com/document/d/1dyQdeH5f2hTuHDZ8QrpW3jSk9wRphVwfJIWjBLHwdwQ https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1slLu9TcQK6rpLkoX3MptQwakGxQHUuSigNineWBCEAU https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSe1Z6RQpixGf76Cx7dEEVV4nunpc3XXkzo04OcCo-6czWhvTw/viewform?usp=sf_link https://calendar.google.com/calendar/event?eid=M2JxZWlrc2psbjc5ZXFzMG83ZjR1ZjNiaTYgbm9hbWltYWprdXRAbQ https://www.google.com/maps/d/edit?mid=15NkKpvQO0K-b_Z9nORxDSCNVrqNLJGQ3&ll=18.364782016499376%2C-92.41699249999999&z=3 https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLE-9cibR65KQb1bOeLvTxKq_8l7z2tzHL https://www.blogger.com/profile/03138538776579909281 https://replicabags1125.blogspot.com https://sites.google.com/site/replicabags1125/ https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1sbf8BKEHSfkT7OHxmka-glUviizYSDcs7YsV7vLxPEQ https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1pn8k1E5dteInDmJRWKYpkDARtzWXWlRO?usp=sharing https://drive.google.com/file/d/10PqxtS9eisPLjIY1F4MpGp0bUqxVmHKU/view?usp=sharing https://docs.google.com/document/d/1bQJbOIf_wSEI6w64fcCKuBE0NERxNxu7ZyPX76DI59Y https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1VEd6yYv7HTo4EzvSurjUeZ2MNVYCuQBtcY_Kvrk22_U https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSdPBStJd8G5um1iOimY6Br8JPvk2_blr40BHvzHDcQqDBkTYw/viewform?usp=sf_link https://www.google.com/maps/d/edit?mid=1cx8IwSyzuyjrOWUe_kj4TSurcTsLN_L9&ll=18.364782016499376%2C-92.41699249999999&z=3 https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLXvdXy7e9b65FlL39hLQ-cxWAdFNfJfgT https://www.blogger.com/profile/07075126685255927487 https://replicabags1126.blogspot.com https://sites.google.com/site/replicabags1126/ https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1LW5R_0rRYUQq6FR5BDxq7oOMuWf45n3StDnZ7Lo8LvU